What is Dyslexia?
The International Dyslexia Association defines “dyslexia” in the following way: Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
“Related disorders” include disorders similar to or related to dyslexia, such as developmental auditory imperception, dysphasia, specific developmental dyslexia, developmental dysgraphia, and developmental spelling disability. Adopted by the International Dyslexia Association Board of Directors, November 12, 2002
Primary reading/spelling characteristics of dyslexia:
- Difficulty reading words in isolation
- Difficulty accurately decoding unfamiliar words
- Difficulty with oral reading (slow, inaccurate, or labored without prosody)
- Difficulty spelling
Both dyslexia and dysgraphia are language-based disorders. Dysgraphia is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifested by illegible and/or inefficient handwriting due to difficulty with letter formation.
Students enrolled in public schools shall be screened for dyslexia and related disorders at the end of the school year for each student in kindergarten and by the end of January for each student in first grade (TEC §38.003). Temple ISD utilizes NWEA MAP Growth and Fluency for this screening.
Standard Protocol Dyslexia Instruction (SPDI)
Standard protocol dyslexia instruction (SPDI) provides evidence-based, multisensory structured literacy instruction for students with dyslexia. Students with dyslexia can be served under special education or under Section 504, depending on the student's unique needs. Please see TEA guidance (June 2018) Provision of Services for Students with Dyslexia and Related Disorders.
Kinder-Grade 1 participate in an Orton-Gillingham-based mulit-sensory approach conducted by a trained personnel. Temple ISD utilizes small group instruction with Fundations and Esperanza to support students identified as dyslexic in kindergarten and first grade.
Grade 2 and above participate in an Orton-Gillingham-based multi-sensory approach conducted by a licensed dyslexia therapist or bilingual literacy coach. Temple ISD utilizes Scottish Rite Take Flight curriculum provided by Certified Academic Language Therapists and/or Esperanza for English Learners.
Websites, Associations & Tools
International Dyslexia Association: The International Dyslexia Association is a national nonprofit dedicated to helping individuals with dyslexia, their families, and the communities that support them. Visit their site to connect with a local branch, find IDA-member providers in your area, and learn more about dyslexia.
Learning Ally: Learning Ally is a nonprofit education solutions organization that offers more than 75,000 digitally recorded audiobooks, including both textbooks and literary titles. Temple ISD students identified with dyslexia all have free access to this resource. Contact your child's dyslexia therapist for more information.
Talking Book Program: The Talking Book Program (TBP) provides free library services to qualifying Texans with visual, physical, or reading disabilities. TBP is part of the National Library Service to the Blind and Print Disabled.
Scottish Rite: The Luke Waites Center for Dyslexia and Learning Disorders was established at Scottish Rite to identify and treat children with learning disorders, primarily dyslexia. Take Flight: A Comprehensive Intervention for Students with Dyslexia is the most recent treatment developed by the Luke Waites Center for Dyslexia and Learning Disorders and is used by the Temple Independent School District.
Temple ISD Dyslexia Program Awareness Brochure